TOPOGRAPHY OF INDIA
India the seventh largest country in the world , is well marked with
off from the rest of Asia by mountains and the sea, which gives the
country a distinct geographical entity. It covers an area of 32,87,2631
sq.km. Bounded by the great Himalayas to the north , it stretches
southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off in the Indian ocean
between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian sea to the west.
Lying entirely in the northern
hemisphere the mainland extends measures 3214 km from north
south between extreme latitudes and about 2933 km from east
to west between extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier
of about 15200 km. The total length of the coastline of the
mainland, Lakshwadeep group of islands and Andaman and Nicobar
group of islands is 7,516.5 km.
The Himalayas and the other mountain ranges
-Mustagh Ata , Aghil Kunlun mountains to the north of Kashmir
and to south eastern portion of Zaskar mountains to the east
of Himachal Pradesh- form Indian northern boundary except
in Nepal region. She is adjoined to the north by China Nepal
and Bhutan. A series of mountain ranges separate India from
Burma. Also, in the east lies the Bangladesh. In the north
west Afghanistan and Pakistan border India. The Gulf of Mannar
and the Palk Straits separate India from Sri lanka.
The Andaman and Nicobar island in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshwadeep
in the Arabian sea are parts of the territory of India.
The Indian sub-continent is characterised
by great diversity in its physical features .It may be divided
into three broadly defined physical units :
- The Himalayas and the associated mountain
- The Indus Ganga-Bramha-putra plain.
- The Peninsular Plateau.
The land is very diverse and
covers an area of about 3.3 million square kilometres. This
large landmass encompasses several varied climatic and ecological
zones. India has the highest snowbound mountain range of the
world, the Himalayas to its north, the humid tropical forests
on the south-west coast, the fertile Brahamaputra valley,
the low mangrove swamps of the Sunderbans, the Garo Hills
of Meghalaya which is the wettest spot on the universe all
lying on its east, the barren marshes of the Rann of Kutch,
and the Thar desert with its shifting sand dunes lies towards
To the north, the Himalayas stretches
approximately 2400 kilometers and has the world's highest mountain
peaks including Mt. Everest, Mt. K2 and Mt. Kanchenjunga. These
mountains form the source of mighty rivers like Indus and Brahmaputra
which flow into the Gangetic plains. These rivers cause constant
erosion of the lofty mountains to build the vast alluvial plains
of the Indus, Ganga and Brahamaputra.
The latter two rivers form
the world's largest and most fertile delta called the Brahmaputra
valley before it flows out into the Bay of Bengal.
The Deccan Plateau is
formed by prehistoric crystalline and lava rocks. Between
the Deccan Plateau and the Gangetic plain lies a series
of low mountain ranges like the Aravallis and Vindhyas.
The plateau has the Eastern and Western Ghats flanking
its sides. The western coastal plain is uneven and swift
rivers flow through it which forms beautiful lagoons
and backwaters, examples of which can be found in the
state of Kerala.
The east coast is wide with deltas
formed by the rivers Godavari, Mahanadi and Kavery. Flanking the
Indian peninsula on the western side are the Lakshadweep Islands
in the Arabian Sea and on the eastern side lies the Andaman and
Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal.